Educational technology, in terms of terminology and structural composition, may carry out two basic components, namely education and technology. Its sole concern with the task of identifying the most suitable, appropriate and developed technology for serving the educational needs and purposes of the students and the society.
It is a matter of no secret that there has been a continuous shift in the nature of the use of technological means and measures for improving the processes and products of education .Depending upon the type of excellence attained by the members of the society and communities all over the globe. In terms of the scientific, philosophical, psychological and technological progress and advances.
The method of verbal presentation on the part of the teachers . Memorization on the part of the students was a common practice. Socrates teacher-pupil oral dialogue system prevalent in the west and oral teaching tradition maintained by the Gurukuls of our country . This may be cite as a testimony of the use of relevant technology in the field of teaching-learning at particular age in the progress of human civilization.
The advent of writing as the means and materials of communication . Writing on the leaves and tree-trunks, engraving on the metals and rocks. The use of some type of paper and ink material provided. The next breakthrough in the use of writing technology for teaching and learning . In the time to come, it provided a great impetus in the field of teaching and learning. It witnessed the use of the subject matter available ,is a great scientific and technological advancement.
The use of writing and printing technology took its next leap in helping the cause of teaching and learning by being utilize in the production and use of the instructional material. like chalk or blackboards, pictures, charts, models, maps, diagrams and other graphic material. With the industrial development and technical advancement, sophisticate scientific instruments, mass media and educational materials were use. This brings use of sophisticated hardware and software like radio, television, tape recorder, films, transparency, etc. in the field of education.
• The concept of programmed instruction and theories of learning. It paves the way dimension to the meaning and concept of educational technology. This widens the new approaches in the form of system-approach . Microteaching interaction analysis and computer assisted instruction came into existence .Theories, means and materials, managerial skills and objectives in the field of teaching and learning . Scope of the term educational technology or teaching technology. It has resulted in defining educational technology in a variety of ways.
Meaning and Definitions
G.O.M. Leith: Educational technology is the systematic application of scientific knowledge about teaching-learning and conditions of learning to improve the efficiency of teaching and training .
Shiv K. Mitra: “Educational technology can be conceive as a science method by which educational goals could be realize (Mitra, 1968:4).”
D. Unwin: “Educational technology is concerned with the application of modern skills and techniques to requirements of education and training. This includes the facilitation of studying by means of manipulation of media and techniques, and the manipulate of environment in to this point as this reflects on getting to know (unwin, 1969).”
W. Kenneth Richmond: “Educational technology is concerned with providing appropriately designed learning situations which, holding in view the objectives of teaching or training. This bring to bear the best means of instruction (Richmond, 1979).”
I.K. Davies: “Education technology is concern with the problems of education context and is characterize by disciplined and systematic approach to the organization training of resources for learning.
J.R. Gases: “Education technology has seen as part of a persist and complex endeavor of bringing pupil, teacher and technical means together in an effective way “
US President Commission of Enquiry: “Education technology may be define as a systematic way of designing, carrying out and evaluating a total process of teaching and learning in terms of specific objectives based on findings from research in human learning and communication .
DES Working Party UK: “Education technology is the development, application evaluation of systems, techniques and aids in the field of human learning (cited in. Tucker, 1979:159).”
Scottish Council for Educational Technology:
“Educational technology is systematic approach to designing and evaluating learning and teaching methods and methodologies to the application and exploitation of media .
An overview of the definitions listed here reveals that there exists wide opinion regarding a particular definition of the term educational technology. Those definitions first of all encompass the instructional era , psychology of mastering and coaching to the audio-visible conversation and mass media technology.
1. Educational technology is concerned with the systematic application of science and technology in the field of education.
2. Science and era help in wearing out the sensible project in preferred, educational technology helps in providing efficiency of coaching and learning..
3. Essentials technology provides technical guidance and solution to the problems of education.
4. Teaching is communicating and education technology can play an effective role in the communication between teacher and student.
Specification of goals and Behavioural objectives.
Analysis of the characteristics of the learner.
Selection and organization of the content or subject matter to be learn.
Methods and strategies of the presentation of the content.
Effective arrangement of learning situations and learning environment.
Continuous feedback and evaluation of the results.
Use of aid-material, software and hardware, mass media and communication techniques.
Effective classroom control and management.
6. Educational technology is not confine to the use of audio-visual aids and does not symbolize merely educational hardware . Which include the sophisticated devices and mechanical gadgets utilized in schooling. For the effective management of the total teaching-learning process it tends to utilize the results of all good, experiments and researches in the field of human learning. The art of communication and employs a combination of all possible human and non-human resources to achieve the desired educational objectives.
In this way, the term educational technology carries a wide meaning. It can neither be confine to the use of audio-visual aids, software materials and hardware equipment. This can not be confine to the use of psychological principles and instructional theories for bringing improvement in education. Must cowl all that occurs throughout the making plans, implementation and assessment of the coaching-studying manner. It should devise ways and means to explore and utilize all the resources to bring improvement in the teaching-learning process.
Educational technology should stand for a wise application of the available human and non-human resources. By providing appropriate solution to the educational problems and to improve the processes and products of education.
The Nature of Educational Technology
This helps in understanding the nature of educational technology,
1. Evolution of the concept of educational technology.
2. Existing position and latest concept.
3. Distinction from other related concepts.
4.Evolution of the Concept of Educational Technology
It may be discuss as follows:
• The earliest concept of educational technology was link with the use of audio visual aids like charts, models, maps, specimen and concrete material. In this sense, the term educational technology was use as a synonym to audio-visual aids meant for direct teaching and learning.
With the emergence of physical science and electronic revolution there came an era of sophisticated hardware and software. Like (gadgets and mechanical devices) like projectors, tape-recorders, radio and television. Educational technology takes in terms of these sophisticate instruments and equipment’s use for presenting instructional material.
The advent of mass media. It led to a massive communication revolution for instructional purposes. Utilization of radio, television, tele-text and computer-assisted instructions for individualized learning. This, brought more sophistication in the use of appliances and instruments for formal and informal education.
• With the advent of programmed learning and programmed instruction concept, a new dimension of educational technology came into the educational horizon. It tried to individualize the process of education and introduced a system of self-learning in the form of designed self-instructional material and a teaching machine. The result, educational technology is regard as being concern with the preparation . Use of individualized instruction or self-instructional programmed material, leading to the use of teaching machine for auto-instruction or learning.
The devices and approaches like wide applications of the theories of learning and teachings, micro-teaching, analysis of behaviour and systems approach, etc. came into existence.
Understanding of the planning, processing and products of education, it has been narrowly conceive by different individuals depending on where one works and stands within the educational spectrum. It has resulted in the formation of varying concepts of educational technology. For or those who are working in audio-visual aids, educational technology is confine to the use of audio-visual aids.
The mass media experts emphasize the importance of sophisticated hardware, software, and communication technology. So as the experts of programmed learning and individualized instruction. There are others who tend to look at educational technology only from the management point. View and consider it as an application of system approach to teaching-learning.
This latest concept involves the concept of systems engineering or systems approach originated from computer science. So It is a systematic way of designing, carrying out, and evaluating the total process of learning and teaching in terms of specific objectives based on research in human learning and communication leading to a combination of human and non-human resources reorganized into an efficient and economic system for the best possible results. So it means a systems approach adopted in the field of education to organize educational systems, keeping in view the broad objectives and the available resources.
This aspect of educational technology carries a wide meaning and multifaceted concepts. It emphasizes the application of a systems approach to the study . Therefore The multidimensional problems of education. Some of these problem areas are as follows:
1. The educational planning and organization.
2. The psychology of learning.
3. The curriculum development and course design.
4. The production of teaching-learning material.
5. Audio-visual method of presentation and dissemination of information, storage and retrieval.
6. The allocation and management of human and non-human resources.
7. The cost-effectiveness of media in education.