Bacteria are found almost everywhere. In the extreme and most favorable conditions, bacterial growth is a must everywhere. We are surrounded by bacteria. In fact, bacteria are found even inside the human body, on our skin, in our hairs and all other surfaces. Bacteria inside our gut or stomach are good bacteria and we must have them to lead a healthy life. The others on our skin and surfaces are mostly harmless and their growth does not affect our health. But some strains of bacteria are harmful to us and cause various infections and even diseases.
Before further discussing the bacterial disease in humans let us briefly describe what a bacteria is. Bacteria are prokaryotic organisms that carry their genetic information in a double-stranded circular molecule of DNA. Some species also contain small circular plasmids. Plasmids are extranuclear DNA, that is generally involved in conferring antibiotic resistivity and pathogenicity of the bacteria. The cell cytoplasm of a bacteria contains ribosomes and there is both a cell membrane and a complex cell wall in all species except Mycoplasma. External to the cell wall, some bacteria have capsules, flagella, or pili. Bacteria normally reproduce by binary fission.
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In olden times, even the most common bacterial infections would prove to be fatal to humans. Bacterial infections which can now easily be treated were once deadly and threatened people worldwide. The development of vaccines and antibiotics was a major breakthrough in the field of medicines. Although bacterial strains have evolved and become antibiotic-resistant, yet most of them can be prevented and cured. Bacteria cause infection by secreting toxins inside the body. They also excrete toxins that cause diseases or are even capable of producing toxins internally in the body. There are numerous kinds of bacteria that are harmful and cause infection or diseases when humans come in contact with them.
The article deals with a discussion of bacterial diseases in humans. The article provides a list encompassing the disease and the causative bacteria. Apart from the list of the symptoms and the causes are involved in the article.
List of Bacterial Diseases in Humans
Since we have developed a basic understanding of the human bacterial disease, let us look into some of the examples of diseases caused by bacteria. Mentioned below is the list of bacterial pathogens and the disease they are associated with.
|Human Bacterial Diseases||Bacteria Responsible|
|Pulmonary Tuberculosis||Mycobacterium tuberculosis|
|Pseudomonas infection||Pseudomonas aeruginosa|
Causes of Bacterial Diseases
Bacterial infection can occur in various ways. Many sources may lead to contact with harmful strains of bacteria causing serious diseases. Some of the causes are as follows:
- The most common and easy way to get infected by bacterial infection is by direct or indirect contact. This may be person to person contact in which the disease spread by coming in contact with the infectious person. It happens if the infected person touches, sneezes, or coughs. Infection occurs even by sharing things like razors, clothes, etc. with the infected person or by coming in contact with the body fluids of the infected person.
- Sexual contact with the infected person is another cause of the spread of disease.
- Animal to person contact wherein, infected animals or pets bite or scratch. Animal or pet wastes should always be handled carefully because they may also cause bacterial infections.
- From mother to child during pregnancy – Although not all germs can cross the placental barrier in pregnant women some infectious germs may cause this barrier to cause the spread of disease.
- Bacterial infections may also spread by indirect contact when disease-causing bacteria are picked up by a healthy person from the surroundings.
- Insects and mosquitoes also carry bacteria and transfer them while biting a healthy uninfected person.
- By eating contaminated food and water. Bacteria grow easily on food and most of the time, they are the reason for food spoilage. Contaminated water bodies are also laden with harmful disease-causing bacteria. Consuming contaminated food or water can, therefore, cause serious bacterial diseases.
Symptoms of Bacterial Diseases
Some of the commonly found symptoms developed in the case of bacterial disease are mentioned below in the article.
- Painful or frequent urination or passing blood while urinating.
- Flu Symptoms include fever, cold, sore throat, headache, body pain, cough, etc.
- Nausea and Vomiting.
- Neck Stiffness.
- Rashes, Lesions, etc.
Risk Factors Involved
While bacteria can infect any healthy person, it is more likely to occur if the person has suppressed immunity or a weak immune system. It may also occur if:
- The person is taking medications that suppress immunity or steroids or has been through surgery or any other medical procedure recently.
- A person already suffering from infectious diseases.
- Infants and children who have weak immunity or older people.
- Malnourished individuals.
- Genetic factors.
- A person is suffering from immunodeficiency disorders.
Prevention of Bacterial Infections
Although it is not possible to completely stop bacteria from infecting humans, certain measures may help to decrease the risk of infection. These include the following:
- Washing hands frequently with soap.
- Sanitizing hands in public places at regular intervals.
- Getting vaccinated on proper schedules.
- Staying away from public places when ill.
- Having protected sexual intercourse.
- Not sharing personal belongings like toothbrushes, razors, needles, comb, drinking glasses, utensils, etc.
- Consuming fresh and hygienically prepared food.
Treatment of bacterial disease
Since we have discussed the bacterial disease causes and prevention, let us look into some of the commonly used treatment methods. The most common mode of treatment uses the administration of antibiotics. Antibiotics can be used to treat bacterial illnesses. It can be bacteriocidal or bacteriostatic. Bactericidal drugs kill bacteria, whereas bacteriostatic treatments prevent bacteria from multiplying. Despite the fact that antibiotics are available to treat a variety of bacterial infections in humans, the continual evolution of bacteria and the resulting development of antibiotic resistance is a major source of concern. Antibiotic overuse, both for treating bacterial infections in people and for other purposes such as intensive farming, has substantially led to the rise of antibiotic resistance in bacteria.
In conclusion of the article, we have learnt about bacterial disease causes, symptoms and prevention in humans. We have also learnt about the commonly opted mode of treatment, the common examples of bacterial disease in humans along with the pathogenic bacteria is also described in the article.